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Blocking NMDA receptors delays death in rats with acute liver failure by dual protective mechanisms in kidney and brain.

Cauli, Omar; González-Usano, Alba; Cabrera-Pastor, Andrea; Gimenez-Garzó, Carla; López-Larrubia, Pilar; Ruiz-Sauri, Amparo; Hernández-Rabaza, Vicente; Duszczyk, Malgorzata; Malek, Michal; Lazarewicz, Jerzy W; Carratalá, Arturo; Urios, Amparo; Miguel, Alfonso; Torregrosa, Isidro; Carda, Carmen; Montoliu, Carmina; Felipo, Vicente

Treatment of patients with acute liver failure (ALF) is unsatisfactory and mortality remains unacceptably high. Blocking NMDA receptors delays or prevents death of rats with ALF. The underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Clarifying these mechanisms will help to design more efficient treatments to increase patient's survival. The aim of this work was to shed light on the mechanisms by which blocking NMDA receptors delays rat 's death in ALF. ALF was induced by galactosamine injection. NMDA receptors were blocked by continuous MK-801 administration. Edema and cerebral blood flow were assessed by magnetic resonance. The time course of ammonia levels in brain, muscle, blood, and urine; of glutamine, lactate, and water content in brain; of glomerular filtration rate and kidney damage; and of hepatic encephalopathy (HE) and intracranial pressure was assessed. ALF reduces kidney glomerular filtration rate (GFR) as reflected by reduced inulin clearance. GFR reduction is due to both reduced renal perfusion and kidney tubular damage as reflected by increased Kim-1 in urine and histological analysis. Blocking NMDA receptors delays kidney damage, allowing transient increased GFR and ammonia elimination which delays hyperammonemia and associated changes in brain. Blocking NMDA receptors does not prevent cerebral edema or blood-brain barrier permeability but reduces or prevents changes in cerebral blood flow and brain lactate. The data show that dual protective effects of MK-801 in kidney and brain delay cerebral alterations, HE, intracranial pressure increase and death. NMDA receptors antagonists may increase survival of patients with ALF by providing additional time for liver transplantation or regeneration .

Alpha-lipoic acid treatment of acetaminophen-induced rat liver damage.

Mahmoud, Y I; Mahmoud, A A; Nassar, G

Acetaminophen (paracetamol) is a well-tolerated analgesic and antipyretic drug when used at therapeutic doses. Overdoses, however, cause oxidative stress, which leads to acute liver failure. Alpha lipoic acid is an antioxidant that has proven effective for ameliorating many pathological conditions caused by oxidative stress. We evaluated the effect of alpha lipoic acid on the histological and histochemical alterations of liver caused by an acute overdose of acetaminophen in rats . Livers of acetaminophen-intoxicated rats were congested and showed centrilobular necrosis, vacuolar degeneration and inflammatory cell infiltration. Necrotic hepatocytes lost most of their carbohydrates, lipids and structural proteins. Liver sections from rats pre-treated with lipoic acid showed fewer pathological changes; the hepatocytes appeared moderately vacuolated with moderate staining of carbohydrates and proteins. Nevertheless, alpha lipoic acid at the dose we used did not protect the liver fully from acetaminophen-induced acute toxicity.

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